How to do fundamental analysis of stocks for trading in Banglades’s stock market.


Embarking on a journey into the realm of stock trading in Bangladesh demands a strategic approach that goes beyond surface-level market trends. In the dynamic landscape of the Bangladesh stock market, the ability to conduct thorough and insightful fundamental analysis is a vital skill for traders seeking to make informed decisions. 

Aspiring investors must delve into the depths of a company’s financial health, dissecting its fiscal intricacies to gauge its intrinsic value and potential for growth. In this guide, we unravel the intricacies of fundamental analysis, equipping you with a comprehensive toolkit to decipher financial statements, evaluate key ratios, and interpret industry trends. 

Whether you’re a novice investor or a seasoned trader looking to refine your skills, this article serves as your essential compass, guiding you through the art and science of fundamental analysis tailored specifically for navigating the stock market in Bangladesh.

Here is a list of topics and terms that you need to know to do fundamental analysis of a stock. We will deep dive into all topics and terms in detail to know in depth that will give you a great understanding of fundamental analysis. 

  • Financial Statements: Income Statement, Balance Sheet, Cash Flow Statement.
  • Revenue: Total income generated by a company.
  • Earnings Per Share (EPS): Profit divided by the number of outstanding shares.
  • Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E): Price of a stock divided by its earnings per share.
  • Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B): Price of a stock divided by its book value per share.
  • Dividend Yield: Dividend income as a percentage of the stock price.
  • Return on Equity (ROE): Net income as a percentage of shareholders’ equity.
  • Debt-to-Equity Ratio: Total debt divided by shareholders’ equity.
  • Liquidity Ratios: Current Ratio and Quick Ratio.
  • Market Capitalization: Total value of a company’s outstanding shares.
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The economic performance indicator of a country.
  • Inflation Rate: The rate of increase in prices over time.
  • Interest Rates: The cost of borrowing money and its impact on investments.
  • Economic Indicators: Unemployment rate, consumer confidence, etc.
  • Industry Analysis: Understanding the sector a company operates in.

Financial Statements 

Financial statements in the context of the stock market are comprehensive documents that provide a snapshot of a company’s financial performance, position, and cash flows over a specific period. There are three primary types of financial statements:

Income Statement (Profit and Loss Statement): This statement summarizes a company’s revenues, expenses, and profits over a specific period, usually a quarter or a year. It reveals whether a company is generating profit or incurring losses, and it provides details on how its revenues are transformed into net income.

Balance Sheet (Statement of Financial Position): The balance sheet presents a company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity at a specific point in time. It offers a snapshot of the company’s financial position, showing what it owns (assets), what it owes (liabilities), and the residual interest belonging to the shareholders (equity).

Cash Flow Statement: This statement provides insights into a company’s cash inflows and outflows during a specific period. It categorizes cash flows into operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities, helping to evaluate the company’s ability to generate and manage cash.


In the stock market, revenue refers to the total income generated by a company from its primary operations. It is also often referred to as “sales” or “sales revenue.” Revenue is a critical financial metric that indicates a company’s ability to generate money through its core business activities.

Revenue is derived from the sale of goods, products, or services that a company offers to its customers. It is the top line of a company’s income statement, and it serves as the starting point for calculating various financial ratios and metrics that assess a company’s financial health and performance.

Earnings Per Share (EPS)

In the stock market, Earnings Per Share (EPS) is a key financial metric that measures a company’s profitability on a per-share basis. It is calculated by dividing the company’s net earnings (profits) by the total number of outstanding shares of its common stock.

The formula to calculate EPS is:

EPS = (Net Earnings) / (Number of Outstanding Shares)

Here’s what the components of the formula mean:

Net Earnings: Also known as net income or net profit, this is the company’s total earnings after deducting all operating expenses, taxes, interest, and other costs from its total revenues.

Number of Outstanding Shares: This refers to the total number of shares of a company’s common stock that are held by shareholders. It includes shares held by individual investors, institutions, insiders, and other stakeholders.

Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E):

In the stock market, the Price-to-Earnings Ratio (P/E ratio) is a fundamental valuation metric used to assess the relative value of a company’s stock by comparing its stock price to its earnings per share (EPS).  

The formula to calculate the P/E ratio is:

P/E Ratio = Stock Price / Earnings Per Share (EPS)

Here’s how to interpret the P/E ratio:

Stock Price: The current market price of a single share of the company’s stock.

Earnings Per Share (EPS): The company’s net earnings (profits) divided by the total number of outstanding shares.

The P/E ratio provides insights into how much investors are willing to pay for each taka of a company’s earnings. A high P/E ratio can indicate that investors have high expectations for the company’s future earnings growth, while a low P/E ratio might suggest that the company’s future growth prospects are not as promising.

There are two main types of P/E ratios:

Trailing P/E: Calculated using the company’s most recent earnings over the last four quarters (the trailing 12 months).

Forward P/E: Calculated using estimated earnings for the next fiscal year. This version of the ratio reflects market expectations for future earnings.

Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B): 

The Price-to-Book Ratio (P/B ratio) is a valuation metric that compares a company’s stock price to its book value per share. The P/B ratio is used by investors and analysts to assess whether a stock is overvalued or undervalued based on its net asset value relative to its market price.

The formula to calculate the P/B ratio is:

P/B Ratio = Stock Price / Book Value Per Share

Here’s how to interpret the P/B ratio:

Stock Price: The current market price of a single share of the company’s stock.

Book Value Per Share: The company’s total assets minus its total liabilities, divided by the total number of outstanding shares.

The P/B ratio is particularly relevant for industries where tangible assets are a significant part of a company’s value, such as manufacturing or real estate. However, it may not be as meaningful for industries that rely heavily on intangible assets, such as technology or services.

Dividend Yield:

Dividend Yield is a financial metric that measures the annual dividend income generated by an investment in a company’s stock relative to its current market price. Dividend Yield is expressed as a percentage and provides insights into the return an investor can expect to receive from dividends for each dollar invested in the stock.

The formula to calculate Dividend Yield is:

Dividend Yield = (Annual Dividend Per Share / Stock Price) * 100

Here’s what the components of the formula mean:

Annual Dividend Per Share: The total dividends paid to shareholders over a year, divided by the total number of outstanding shares.

Stock Price: The current market price of a single share of the company’s stock.

Return on Equity (ROE): Net income as a percentage of shareholders’ equity.

Debt-to-Equity Ratio: Total debt divided by shareholders’ equity.

Liquidity Ratios: Current Ratio and Quick Ratio.

Market Capitalization: Total value of a company’s outstanding shares.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The economic performance indicator of a country.

Inflation Rate: 

The inflation rate in the stock market of Bangladesh refers to the rate at which the general level of prices for goods and services within the market is rising over a specific period. This indicator is crucial as it reflects the purchasing power of investors and can have a significant impact on investment decisions. A higher inflation rate can erode the real returns on investments, making stocks and other assets less attractive. Conversely, a lower inflation rate may enhance the appeal of stocks as an investment option. 

The Bangladesh stock market’s inflation rate is influenced by various factors, including changes in consumer demand, supply chain disruptions, government policies, and global economic trends. Monitoring and understanding the inflation rate in the stock market is vital for investors, policymakers, and market analysts to make informed decisions and anticipate market trends.

Interest Rates: 

Interest rates in the context of the stock market in Bangladesh play a critical role in shaping investment decisions and market dynamics. The interest rate, set by the central bank or monetary authorities, represents the cost of borrowing funds or the return on lending investments. In the stock market, interest rates have a significant impact on investor behavior. When interest rates are low, borrowing costs decrease, encouraging investors to borrow money to invest in stocks and other assets. 

This can lead to increased demand for stocks, potentially driving up their prices. Conversely, higher interest rates can make borrowing more expensive, leading some investors to opt for safer fixed-income investments instead of stocks. Interest rate changes can also influence the valuation of stocks, as higher rates might reduce the present value of future earnings and dividends, affecting stock prices. 

Additionally, interest rate shifts can reflect broader economic conditions, which in turn impact market sentiment. As a result, keeping a close watch on interest rate trends is essential for both investors and analysts in navigating the complexities of the Bangladesh stock market.

Economic Indicators: 

Economic indicators are essential tools for assessing and understanding the health and direction of the stock market in Bangladesh. These indicators encompass a wide range of economic data that provide insights into the overall economic performance of the country. Key indicators include the GDP growth rate, inflation rate, unemployment rate, trade balance, and consumer confidence index, among others. 

These indicators help investors and analysts gauge the strength of the economy and its potential impact on the stock market. For instance, a robust GDP growth rate might indicate a favorable environment for businesses, potentially boosting stock market performance. On the other hand, a high inflation rate could erode purchasing power and affect consumer spending, which may, in turn, influence stock market trends. 

Unemployment rates can also impact consumer sentiment and spending habits, further influencing market dynamics. By closely monitoring and analyzing these economic indicators, stakeholders in the Bangladesh stock market can make more informed decisions, predict market trends, and develop strategies that align with the broader economic landscape.

Industry Analysis:

Industry analysis in the context of the stock market in Bangladesh involves a comprehensive assessment of specific sectors and their potential impact on investment decisions. This analysis delves into the dynamics, trends, and performance of various industries within the country. Investors and analysts examine factors such as market demand, supply chains, regulatory environment, technological advancements, and competitive landscape to understand the growth prospects and risks associated with different industries. 

By evaluating industry-specific data and trends, investors can identify sectors that are poised for growth and those that might face challenges. This analysis aids in making informed investment choices, allocating resources strategically, and managing risk effectively. Moreover, understanding industry dynamics enables investors to capitalize on emerging opportunities and navigate potential market fluctuations. 

In the Bangladesh stock market, where industries can vary significantly in terms of their growth trajectories and vulnerabilities, industry analysis serves as a valuable tool for optimizing investment portfolios and maximizing returns.


In conclusion, mastering the art of fundamental analysis is a pivotal skill for navigating the dynamic landscape of Bangladesh’s stock market. By delving into a company’s financial statements, understanding its business model, evaluating industry trends, and considering macroeconomic indicators, investors can uncover valuable insights that go beyond short-term price fluctuations. 

This thorough examination allows for informed investment decisions, helping traders identify potentially undervalued stocks with strong growth prospects and avoid pitfalls associated with overvalued or underperforming companies. As Bangladesh’s stock market continues to evolve, fundamental analysis remains a cornerstone strategy for those seeking to build well-informed, resilient portfolios that can weather market fluctuations and capitalize on long-term opportunities.

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